From “Is Evolution True? Laying Out the Logic,” by Ann Gauger. See full article here.
To summarize, the key points of that evolutionary argument are:
- Evolution is true. That is, enzymes have evolved new functions by a process of random mutation and natural selection.
- Modern enzymes can’t evolve genuinely new functions by random mutation and natural selection but can only tinker with existing functions.
- Therefore, ancient enzymes must have been different, capable of carrying out a broad range of enzyme activities.
- Those enzymes underwent duplication and diverged from one another, becoming specialized.
- How do we know this happened? Because we now see a broad array of specialized enzymes. Evolution is the explanation.
This begs the question of whether evolution is true. It is a circular argument unsubstantiated by the evidence and unfalsifiable. No one can know what ancient enzymes actually looked like, and whether they really had such broad catalytic specificities.
In contrast, our argument is as follows:
- Is evolution true? Test case: Do enzymes evolve by a process of natural selection and random mutation?
- Modern enzymes are the only thing we can test.
- No one knows if ancient enzymes were different. They are lost in the deep past, so claims with regard to their promiscuity or ability to evolve are hypothetical and unfalsifiable.
- Modern enzymes can’t evolve new functions, based on our own experiments.
- We haven’t tested the universe of modern enzymes, so our result is qualified, but the nine most similar enzymes did not change function.
- Our estimate for the likely waiting time for an enzyme to evolve a new function is at least 1015 years.
- Therefore evolution of enzymes is likely to be impossible.
- Given the sophistication of enzymes and the way they work together, intelligent design is the best explanation for the origin and current diversity of modern enzymes.